Preheat the oven to 400 degrees F. Line a large rimmed baking sheet with parchment paper.
Place the asparagus on the baking sheet in a single layer.
Drizzle with the olive oil, then toss with your hands to coat. Sprinkle with kosher salt, black pepper, garlic powder, and half the Parmesan.
Bake until tender-crisp, about 15 minutes.
Sprinkle with the remaining Parmesan and serve.
I use garlic powder when making this recipe because its fine granules coat the spears uniformly. If you prefer fresh minced garlic, that works too. Leftovers keep in the fridge in an airtight container, for 3-4 days. You can chop them and add them cold to a salad, or gently reheat in the microwave on 50% power.